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Instructional Techniques

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Reading Strategies is a label commonly used to refer to both the strategies used by students to get meaning from text and the strategies used by teachers to structure and deliver instruction. Merry Bee uses the label ‘instructional techniques’ for those instructional strategies the teacher uses and ‘reading strategies’ for those strategies the student uses in reading.
  • across the curriculum or reading in the content areas
  • anticipation guide
  • assisted reading
  • choral reading
  • cloze
  • directed reading thinking activities (DRTA)
  • dialog journal or double entry journal
  • focused imaging
  • guided reading
  • KWL and variations
  • literature circle
  • modeling, coached practice and reflection (MCR)
  • question/answer relationships (QAR)
  • questioning the author
  • readers theater
  • readers workshop
  • reciprocal teaching
  • sketch to stretch
  • Socratic questioning
  • storytelling
  • technology
  • transactional strategies instruction (TSI)
  • word walls
  • writers workshop
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Anticipation Guide


Developed by J. E. Readence, 1986
Use for small group or individual reaction.
Use in grades 2-12.

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The teacher chooses a book and writes a series of statements about the content. Students read the statements and decide if they are true or false. Then, individually or in groups, students read the text selection and compare what the author actually says with the statement sheet that they marked.
Can be used in tandem with Reaction Guides following the reading.

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Links to resources
  • Literacy Strategy: Anticipation Guide is a one page PDF file with steps to creating an anticipation guide. For teachers of grades 6-10.
  • Anticipation Guide. Overview of the technique and step-by-step procedure. Includes an example for text about early scientists.
  • Pre-Reading Anticipation Guide. Lesson plan for teaching the use of an anticipation guide. Two versions of an article about the Aurora Borealis are provided at two different text levels. The Anticipation Guide provided works with either level. grades 3-9
  • Anticipation Guides gives description, purpose, and how to write anticipation guides. Includes an example for a text passage that talks about computers in the workplace.
An Anticipation/Reaction Guide has a little different format.
  • Anticipation/Reaction Guide. Constructing and using an Anticipation/Reaction Guide. Includes an example in PDF file format from a science lesson on cell division. For teachers of grades 6-12.
  • NCREL: Anticipation/Reaction Guide. Sample Anticipation/Reaction Guide from a science lesson on dinosaurs, developed by NCREL. For teachers of grades 5-10.
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page last updated: 4/12/05
© 2003-2005, Mary Berry. All rights reserved.